KISAH KHALIFAH ABU BAKAR RA DAN KHALIFAH UMAR BIN KHATTAB

TALES AND Caliph Abu Bakr RA
Caliph Omar bin Khattab
 
Caliph Abu Bakr as-Siddiq RA
v CVs
Abu Bakr was born in 573 AD His original name was Abu Kaaba. His father was Uthman who became known as Abi Quafah original. His mother was Umm Salma bin Khaair Sakha. Abu Bakr's name consists of two words "Abu" means the father is "Burn" means immediately. Known by the name Abu Bakr because of the first people who converted to Islam. And earned an As-Siddiq because he was the first to justify the events of Isra 'Mi'rajnya Prophet Muhammad. "As-Siddiq" means a very confirmed.
Abu Bakr is the companion of the Prophet's most loyal and friendly with the Prophet since he has not appointed a messenger to the Prophet's death. Even a princess named Abu Siti Aisyah fuel has become the wife of the Prophet.

Personality Abu Bakar v
Since childhood, Abu Bakr was known to the child a good, patient, honest, gentle, and well liked by the community. He also never behave like people of Quraish who like to drink The wine, gambling, fighting, and killing. He made a living from trade and known for honesty and generosity. Fuel ash has a strong, smart, capable, broad scientific knowledge and are experts in the fields of literature, history and takwil dream.

v and the Struggle for Abu Bakr's Attitude
a. Patience Abu Bakr when accompanying Hijra Prophet
In each mission gjve Prophet of Islam in the middle of the Quraish always get a scolding and makian.Abu Fuel Rasullah always accompanied by faithful and always defend, assist, and protect. Similarly, when the Prophet ordered the Muslims migrated to Medina, Abu Bakr wanted to participate but are prohibited by the Prophet to be patient until a command from God to move. Until finally the order came gladly agreed to accompany the Prophet to migrate and remain patient and steadfast despite facing many obstacles.
Abu Bakr exemplary patience in everyday life, such as when a trial did not need to complain and grieve. For the patient can be practiced when students follow the lessons at school, carrying out tasks assigned by Mr. and Mrs. Teacher, follow the rules of the school, and in reaching your goals. We must cultivate patience properties early in order to always get the protection of God Almighty, because God is always with those who patiently as He says in Surah Al Anfal verse 46:



It means: "Verily, Allah is with those who patiently persevere." (Q.S Al Anfal: 46)

b. Conviction of Abu Bakr when Receive News Isra 'Mi'raj
The event of Isra 'Mi'raj is difficult to accept events with a sense of yng. Many unbelievers who deny, not accept orders even be praying for the people of Quraysh defamatory material. Trying to incite the unbelievers Abu Bakr, Abu Bakr asked what they believe in what is told of the Prophet Muhammad, and Abu Bakr replied firmly "It is true what the Prophet Muhammad was told and I believe him." Even with a pointed saying "If it comes if news of the Prophet Muhammad I would justify, even more than justifies my rose. Muhammad is a man who never sinned. "From then Abu Bakr As-Siddiq received designation. And he believes that what the prophet did not come from the personal will of the Prophet, but on revelation and commandment from Allah, as He says in the Letter An Najm verses 1-4:




We as Muslims are obliged to conduct prayer command is the result of the events of Isra 'Ascension. So it is with other worship such as fasting, paying zakat, hajj, and the other as his. In order for our faith stronger, the soul becomes tranquil, and always guided by Allah SWT.

Abu Bakr became the caliph v
a. Leadership transition process from the Prophet to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was elected caliph after the Prophet Muhammad's death through consultation between the Anshor, Muhajirin, and children of Banu Hashim in Safiqa Saidah. In these deliberations suffered bitterly perdebadan where each faction has their own candidate. The Anshor chose Sa'd bin Ubadah, the Muhajirin chose Abu Bakr, while Banu Hashim Ali ibn Abi Talib choose as leader.
The debate heard Abu Bakr and Umar bin Sa'd bin Safiqa Ubadah come and explain about the services is for Islam. Then, holding the hands of Umar ibn Khatab RA and Abu Ubaidah ibn Jarrah RA as he told the audience that the two friends here who deserve to be leaders. After hearing the statement of Abu Bakr, Umar hands trembled and closed the Abu Ubaidah muika and weep with shame. Umar ibn Khattab and shouted "By Allah, I prefer to be brought forward and cut down my neck though without sin, rather than appointed as the leader of one where there is Abu Bakr.
Proficiency level in these statement made Abu Bakr Umar silent because they do not expect him to be appointed as a caliph and realized that he was not as strongly as Abu Omar, and not as wise as Ubaidah. But eventually all those present chose Abu Bakr became the leader. After the caliphate of Abu Bakr dibaiat speech indicating that the office of caliph is a mandate that must be justified not only to society but also to God Almighty.

b. Services - services Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr becomes first caliph in 11 H/632 M, services - services during his rule, among others:
1) Combat False Prophets
Those who claim to be false prophets are:
§ Musailamah Al Kadzab from Bani Hanifa
§ Thulaihah Khuwailid of Bani bin As'ad
§ Sa'jah Tamimiyah of Bani Tamim
§ Aswad Al Ansi of Yemen
And assigned to combat the false prophet is Khalid bin Walid, the son of Abu Jahl Ikrima, Surahbil bin Hasanah and Al Muhajir bin Abi Umayyad.
2) The apostatized quell
By way of still refused to give a warning if it will be taken the way of violence. Assigned is the son of Abu Jahl Ikrima, Surahbil bin Hasanah, 'Amr ibn Ash and Khalid bin Walid.
3) destroy groups - groups who refuse alms
By sending a letter to pay the zakat but insisted this class does not pay, because it had Abu Bakr sent an army to utterly order to create the life of Muslims are peaceful.
4) Make the Quran bookkeeping
Qur'an bookkeeping done with Zaid bin Sabit and formed manuscripts. This is done because the number of the companions who memorized the Qur'an died in war.
5) To unite the Arab region under the banner of Islam
6) The expansion of Islam into Iraq, Persia, and Syria (Sham)

v Caliph Abu Bakr's death
Kjhalifah Abu Bakr died on Monday 23 Jumada end of 13 H / 634 AD August 22 due to illness. He ruled wisely for 2 years 3 months 10 days and is buried near the Prophet SAW. Before he dies intestate that he is the successor Caliph Umar ibn Khattab.


Caliph Omar bin Khattab RA
v CVs
Umar ibn Khattab was born in the year 581 AD, the son of al-Quraishi Nuafil a descendant of the tribe of Bani Ady which included esteemed among the Arabs. Umar family is respected family of the Quraish tribe. Grandfather, uncles and brothers - many of which his brother became a high official in Mecca. In adolescence, Umar was known as a strong wrestler, his body straight, strong, brave, strong character, and highly disciplined. Umar often told his nation in the conduct of negotiations so that he is fluent in speaking and diplomacy. Quraish gave him the title "Desert Lion" because of his righteousness, and nicknamed "Abu Faiz" because of his intelligence and speed.
  • v Process Umar Islam Sign
  • Initially the Islamic da'wah got different resistance from the tribe of Quraysh, the Prophet of Islam expects no adherents of a strong and courageous. He prayed: which means "O Allah, strengthen Islam with one of two people named Umar (ie, Amr bin Hisham and Umar ibn al-Khattab)." Prayer is granted to the Messenger of Islam Umar ibn al-Khattab entered in the fifth year after the prophecy.
  • The incident started from a desire to murder the Prophet Umar, in the middle of the street he met Ibn Abdillah Nu'im. Nu'im trying to divert attention with 'Umar told him that his sister Fatima and her husband, Said ibn Zayd had converted to Islam. Hearing the news, Umar was angry and went straight to his sister's house. Once there he heard the voice of people who read the Qur'an. At the time the Qur'an was read out by Ibn Art Khabah to Fatimah and her husband, the letter is a letter that was read Thoha. Hearing this Umar was angry and went inside. Then he asked that the pages of the Koran which was hidden by Khabah.
  • After receiving and then she read it, and Omar is a master of language, by reading the verse he felt impressed with its beauty, purity, and miracles. Umar immediately ran toward the house Arqom bin Abil, because this home is being delivered teaching of the Prophet of Islam. When he got there he expresses himself to the Prophet to embrace Islam. Then read two sentences as a sign he has creed Islam. Umar embraced Islam at the age of 27 years. Since that time he became the courageous defender of Islam and strengthen Islamic lines

v Personality Umar ibn Khattab
Prior to Islam, Umar is a famous person is cruel and against Islam. Once converted to Islam, he is known as a tough and decisive character in fighting against the infidels of Quraish Islamdan. He was never absent in the war, such as the battle of Badr, Uhud war, war Khandag, Thabuk war, and so on.
Umar famous people most critical, decisive, and bold opinion before the Prophet. Although he has an opportunity to live well, but he remains a simple example of the Prophet's life because he thinks wealth will only make people forget God, forget their obligations and its people.

v becomes the Caliph Umar ibn Khattab
a. Leadership Transition Process from Abu Bakr to Umar ibn al-Khattab
Caliph Abu Bakr As-Siddiq died when the army of the Muslims fought against the Roman tertara. By the death of the Caliph Abu Bakr entered into deliberations to elect a leader, he stopped up. In order to prevent conflicts so he appointed Umar as his successor. Charter, the appointment of Umar ibn Khattab, Abu Bakr was written before his death.

b. Services - services Umar ibn Khattab
Setting the Hegira Year
Umar set a year hijrahnya Prophet from Mecca to Medina as the Islamic calendar. Hegira's first year, started since hijrahnya Prophet to Medina on July 16, AD 622 The name - the name of the month, among others: Muharram, Shafar, Rabi-Early, Rabiuts Tsani, Jumadal Ula, Junadats Tsani, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhulqa'dah, and Dhu al-Hijjah. Hegira calendar new year falls on 1 Muharram

Forming institutions - the institution of the Caliphate
In the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Khattab Islamic territory including areas Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia. Because the vast territory so that  government needs to make the preparation of Islam and its rules are not contrary to Islamic teachings.
§ COMPOSITION OF POWER
The composition rule of Caliph (Amiril Faithful), Wali (Governor), and Al-Amil (District Head).
§ DUTY OFFICERS
His job is responsible for the decline of Islam and developed countries. It also served as a priest to pray, to reconcile the dispute, leading the army, collect taxes and charity, and others.
§ POWER REGION divide
Islam's territory is divided into eight provinces, namely:
1. Makkah
2. Medina
3. Syria
4. Peninsula (in Mesopotamia, the valley between the     
  Euphrates and Tigris)
5. Basrah
6. Kufa
7. Egypt, divided into two, covering Egypt, the (al-Sha'id) and lower Egypt
8. Palestine was divided into two districts, namely Ailah and Ramlah

§  Establish OFFICE ADMINISTRATION
Government offices in each province is called Dar al-Imarah and managed by a trusted person who is called al-Diwan. Key officials in each province, among others: Al-Wali (Governor), Al-├ůmli (District Head), Al-Qadi (Judge), Khatib al-Diwan (Chief Secretary), and Sahib al-Mal baiat (Director of the Department of Treasury State).
§ FORMED BOARD - STATE BOARD
Board - the state board, among others: Treasury Board, Army Board, the Board shaper Law - Law and Justice Council.

The work - the work of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab who was recorded in history
Establish Baitul Mal
Mensunnahkan tarawih prayers congregation at the mosque
Determine the distribution of inheritance
Creating coin
Extending the power of the region, both Persia, Iraq, Syria and Egypt
Extending the Nabawi Mosque and the land is paved gravel
Conduct investigations and surveillance at night
Creating moats and bridges
Using the post for sending letters
Warehouse providing wheat for the people who run out of food

v death of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn Khattab's reign ended after he was stabbed by a Persian slave named Abu Lu'lu'ah mengimami Fairuz when they wanted to pray at dawn. This incident makes Umar can not continue the prayer. Before he died he had six companions, Uthman ibn Affan them is Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Abdurrahman ibn Awf for deliberation chose After the death of the leader himself. From the results of deliberations Usman bin Affan was elected as the next Caliph.
Additionally, Omar also told his daughter that he requested permission to the Prophet's wife Aisha to be buried in his home, that is beside the tomb of the two companions of the Prophet and Abu Bakr As-Siddiq. Aisha was allowed. Bi Umar Khattab died on 26 Dhu al-Hijjah 23 H / M 644 3 November at the age of 63 years after ruling for 10 years six months.

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