In order to Provide an adequate description of the problem posed in the title above it would be good in a row We discuss (a) The meaning of pluralism and difference with the pluralistic, (b) Pluralism as a root cause of conflict, (c ) Role and function Government and community and religious institutions in conflict resolution, (d) Method of conflict resolution, and (e) Pattern of management of life based on plurality of Pancasila.
1. The meaning of pluralism and pluralistic
Pluralism comes from the plural word Which means a lot, That is an ideology recognizes there are many Different That ideology or entities That do not Depend on Which one of the other. Each ideology, or independent entities not bound to one another, Thus no substitute for a substitute substance of ideology-the ideology, or the Various entities. Standard and Poor One example in Indonesia there are hundreds of ethnic groups. According to the ideology of pluralism Every tribe allowed to detach from one another, do not need any other substances, Standard and Poor 'the name of the nation, Which reduces the existence of These Tribes.
Gave birth ideology of pluralism ideology of individualism That recognizes That Each individual stands alone apart from other individuals. Ideology of individualism is to admit the existence of individual differences or the so-called individual differences. Each individual has their own Characteristics That Must be respected and appreciated as Standard and Poor. Ideology of individualism That Gave birth to this ideology of liberalism, that human beings are Born into the World Blessed with freedom. Only with this freedom, the dignity of the individual cans be seated properly. Trilogy ideology of pluralism, individualism and liberalism is what Gave birth to a democratic system of governance systems, ESPECIALLY in the West Country.
Following the United States submitted the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of Human Rights and Citizen France underlying the implementation of democratic system in That State
United States Declaration of Independence
We hold These Truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they want want are endowed by on on their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that the Among These are Life, Liberty, and pursuit of Happiness. That to secure These rights, Governments are instituted Among men, deriving just powers from the consent of the governed.
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Can be a social distinction based only upon public utilities. The aim of Every political association Is the preservation of the natural and impressive the rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
From These declarations Appear in the real ideology of pluralism, individualism and liberalism baste the democratic system adopted in the second State. Two declarations are expressed Almost At The Same Time, one in the United States, one in one of the countries in Europe.
Nevertheless they want still acknowledge That Humans are not likely to live alone. To be Able to support life and to Preserve Themselves, they want Require all parties, parties Some say That this is driven by instinct or instinct in groups. They need to live together in a shape Some way, by basing Ourselves on the belief systems adopted. Among the human relationship with other parties in the form of Devotion, that one must be devoted solely to the other. Also there is' That recognition is the equality of human relations. As a result the pattern of human life so changed from Diverse.
Driven by this reality, the American nation in the Implementing pluralism, individualism and liberalism look for patterns of how to establish a life together. In an agreement to live together is needed to hold together in moving forward together to face life's challenges. Developed pattern called "social contract" that community members must give up Some of the rights of individuals in order to realize a life together. The spirit united in the common life is seen in the slogan contained in the symbol of his country's motto Which reads "E Pluribus Unum," Which means "out of many, one" from many of Them Which one, or unity in diversity. The method applied in the form of unity, Called the method of melting pot, if assessed further Which has deviated from the principle of pluralism.
Plurality is the nature or quality That illustrate the diversity, a recognition That the universe was created in diversity. As an example of the Indonesian nation to admit That the Indonesian nation-state is pluralistic, Diverse in terms of tribal people, indigenous culture, native language, the religion embraced, and so forth. This is a reality or necessity in the life of the Indonesian nation. Should this diversity be seated in proportion in the life of nation and state, Should be assessed as an asset of the nation, not as a hindrance factor of progress.
Pattern attitude Indonesian people in facing this diversity based on a sesanti, or AdAge "Unity in Diversity," Which means rich, but one, Which Is Almost Same with the motto "That is held by the Americans, namely" E Pluribus Unum. " Mpu Sesanti Tantular is derived from work, contained in Married Sutasoma in the 14th Century, and has been confirmed as the watchword in the State Seal listed in the 1945 Constitution and the Amendment contained in Article 36a. In applying the plurality of life, the Indonesian nation based on principles contained in the Preamble to the Constitution in 1945, that the main concern is the interests of the nation rather than individual interests, the Following Phrases contained in the Preamble to the Constitution in 1945 :
That real independence is the right of all peoples;
That independence is declared by the Indonesian nation, so people cans denganke That life independent nationhood;
That one of the Indonesian nation-state mission is to the intellectual life of the nation;
That one of the Indonesian state is the basic unity of Indonesia, Which is an insight no other Nationality.
That is to be Complaints with the establishment of the Indonesian nation-state is social justice for all Indonesian people.
From the Phrases contained in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution is clear That the principle of national and state Nationality coloring life for the Indonesian nation. Individual terms or concepts of individualism is not on the Opening of the 1945 Constitution. In other words the pluralistic That applied in Indonesia is not based on individualism and liberalism.
Pluralistic plurality or not an ideology, ISMS or belief is absolute. For it is not Necessary to develop certain Rituals Poor 'religious. Pluralistic taken by the Indonesian nation as one of the principles in the organization of national and state life Can be characterized Mutation
Pluralism implies That the common life based on an inclusive attitude, Which Means That in dealing with other parties did not win his own act, that opinion is not necessarily the most correct, do not underestimate the opinion of other parties.
Pluralistic attitude is not sectarian and exclusive, too proud of his own and do not take into account other groups. As a result of growing suspicion, Jealousy and unhealthy competition took place.
Pluralistic attitude is not merely formalistic, that just shows the apparent behavior. Pluralistic attitude of mutual trust based on trust and mutual respect for respect. In fact must be based on compassion That Can Unite the diversity in harmony.
Pluralistic attitude leads to convergent rather than divergent action. Pluralistic attitude of seeking common denominator or de grootste gemene deeler and de kleinste gemene veelvoud of diversity as a common platform in the act and act together.
Pluralistic attitude is not expansive, so it is more Concerned with quality than quantity.
Be tolerant, understanding the other party and to respect and appreciate the views of other parties
Pluralistic attitude does not touch Things That Are sensitive to the other party.
Pluralistic character of accommodation stance is based on the maturity and self-control is excellent. Attitude pluralistic character of sportsmanship, excellence and courage to admit weaknesses and working partner or partners to Compete.
Avoid pluralistic attitude on their extremities, develop moderation, balanced and proportionate.
Pluralism as the root problem of Conflicts
In front was noted pluralism That Can not be separated from the accompanying ideology of individualism and liberalism. Individualism is the ideology That glorifies self-interest too from the interest groups. Moderate liberalism worships freedom by applying the principle of free competition. The second application of the ideology of control would trigger a struggle That culminated in the conflict of interest. Disagreement or conflict occur May Between individuals, Between individuals and groups, Between groups, as well as Between individuals, groups and nation-states, and Between central and local government interests.
Pls yet Deeper We examine the roots of the problem of conflict is unfair That triggered the behavior of public dissatisfaction, or part of society That leads to conflict.
"One example of the Law on pornography, any divergence of interests Between individuals, specific groups and nation-states, so That at the time of preparation of laws on pornography Experiencing protracted conflict situations. Each party argued in accordance with its interests. In searching for solutions on this kind of conflict it is Necessary to the existence of a standard reference. suppose That all applicable laws and Regulations in Indonesia Should be a translation of the principles and values contained in the Preamble to the Constitution in 1945. Regulation of all legislation published in the interest of all people, not the interests of the community. This is a reference to any criticism of the prevailing legal product in Indonesia. Here's just a theory of state submitted underlie That provision and Standard and Poor.
Prof. Dr. Attamimi with reference to the opinion of Prof. .. Notonagoro, Prof. Hans Nawiasky Soepomo and, in his dissertation an mentioning That in the Preamble of the Constitution are legal or ideals rechtsidee Called That contain a value system That Became the basis for drafting the legislation. Goal of this law is constitutive and regulative toward national and state life for the people of the nations Concerned. For the Indonesian nation is no other legitimate purpose is Pancasila, so That the principles and values contained in Pancasila Should be Used in Preparing the base as legislation and in attitude and behavior acting community, nation and state in life. Any legislation That is not a derivate of Pancasila Should be removed from the legal system in the Republic of Indonesia. Constitutional Court and Supreme Court must jelly in performing judicial review of all legislation.
One example of many local Regulations That deviate from the principles embodied in the Pancasila, eg a particular religious or regional nuances particular. Which must be straightened. Meanwhile, the principle of unity in diversity Should be referenced in determining the laws and Regulations applicable in Indonesia, Which is very pluralistic. In accordance with the provisions contained in Act No.10 of 2004, that any statutory Regulations applicable in Indonesia in them Should be based:
The principle of Nationality, that the substance of legislation Should Reflect the nature of a single State ika diversity, pluralism in the unity of the unitary Republic of Indonesia.
The principle of unity in diversity, that the substance of legislation must consider the diversity of population, religion, ethnicity, class, special regional conditions, and culture, ESPECIALLY Regarding sensitive issues in society, nation and state.
We need to look at That supreme deity is not a religion, let alone a particular religion. Wholeness Almighty Which is a religious concept recognizes the existence of certain supernatural substance in doing community in accordance with on their respective beliefs.
Religiosity derived from the human spirit, according to Webster's dictionary meaning relating to That Which is acknowledged as the ultimate reality, or manifesting Devotion to and reflecting the nature of the divine or That Which one hold to be of ultimate importance. Thus religious meaning associated with the recognition of something Which is absolute reality. Or they want cans be meaningful as an expression of Sacrifice / worship of the Unseen, Which is believed as an absolute essential.
Religiosity religiosity in the language has a meaning intense, excessive, or Affected the quality of being religious. Thus, religiosity means happy or tend to the reality That is absolute or offering / service of the Unseen, Which is believed as something Important and is absolute in human life.
Pancasila is the view That God as prima causa, as the creator of all universe, maintainer and regulator of the universe, His Creatures sympathize all purposes. And the human being must be cautious and worship God. Human beings must be thankful for all the delicious gift of God and be patient all exams. Pancasila religiosity derived in principle "Belief in God Almighty." The principle embodied in the Pancasila are:
Recognition of the existence of Various Religions and belief in Almighty God;
Each individual is free embraced his religion and belief;
Not impose a religion or belief to another party;
Trust and piety to God Almighty in accordance with religion and belief respectively;
Mutually respectful inter-religious respect and trust;
Mutual respect for the beliefs held by other parties;
Worship in accordance with religious beliefs are embraced, without disturbing the freedom of worship to other faiths;
In the conduct of worship does not disturb the peace and public order.
3. Role of Government, Public Institutions and religious leaders in conflict resolution
Should Government be providing public facilities by issuing laws and Regulations Which are not controversial, either siding with a particular group or tribe of religious orientation / certain ethnicity, And that does not confuse the public. Democracy Will be done properly only if the minorities are protected and get the rights properly. Should Governments protect minorities, so it does not changed from second-class citizens. Meanwhile, the Regulations of law enforcement legislation to be enforced. Every citizen has the Same position before the law.
Should be public institutions of socialization community in order to understand and comply with Regulations set by the State Agency has the right, ethical way with no siding with a particular Faction. Socialization of legislation cans be the traditional way, using paper or electronic media. In performing public duties on their institutions Received help from the government, for example in Providing the Necessary materials, organizing events and socializing. Thus there sinerjik Cooperation Between government and community institutions.
Should religious institutions be utilized to test any legislation That the materials or substances contained in the legislation does not conflict with religious Teachings contained in a Cuddle. In the Unlikely Event That does not fit to be IMMEDIATELY submitted to the Constitutional Court or the Supreme Court for further processing. Religious institutions do not take action Itself if there is a provision in legislation That is incompatible with its Teachings.
Methods of Conflict Resolution
Is to appreciate the nature of the differences pluralistic, this does not mean That These differences to be exaggerated. Necessary to find common platform handles That Can be used as living together in the state and nation. The principle of unity in diversity Should be a handle to resolve any differences and Struggles of interest.
By conducting a dialogue, discussion, discourse needs to be developed Attitudes Which are a reflection of unity in diversity.
Once We understand Some of the principles contained in unity in diversity, then the next step is how the principles of Unity in Diversity is implemented in the life of nation and state. Attitudes and behavior are:
That front was noted in one of the principles contained in the Unity in Diversity is an inclusive attitude. In a joint life motto Unity in Diversity adopted the view That he, either as individuals or groups of people feel Themselves only part of the unity of the larger society. How Large and Important groups in the common life, not despise and underestimate the other group. Each has a role That Can not be ignored, and meaningful for on their life together.
Accommodate the pluralistic nature of
Indonesia is a pluralistic nation in terms of religious diversity That is embraced by the community, Various That indigenous cultures developed in the regions, ethnic groups with their own language, and occupies Thousands of islands That rarely gone so far apart That one island from another island . Without understanding the meaning of pluralism and how to achieve unity in diversity accurately, Easily Happen disintegration. The nature of tolerance, respect Each other respect, Each party settled in accordance with the role, status and dignity precisely, do not sell short on the other hand, let alone erase the existence of a group of common life, is a condition for sustainability Indonesian nation-state. Harmony needs to be developed properly. An example of before the reform, in Ambon applies a pattern of common life, Called pela gadong, a pattern of community life Itself That does not base on religion, but solely on the common life in certain areas. Adherents of Various Religions take place very harmonious, help assist in the activities of non-religious Rituals. They do not distinguish Between the Tribes WHO resided in the area, and so forth. Unfortunately, with the reforms Which promotes freedom, Standard and Poor a pattern of community life have eroded this ideal reform Currents.
Not looking for his own victory
Respect the opinions of Others, with no thought That the most true to his own opinion, he or his group's most powerful needs to be regulated in applying Unity in Diversity. Able to receive and to give an opinion is something That Should thrive in a Diverse life. For this difference is not exaggerated, but sought the meeting point. Not developed divergence, but That was the realization of convergence Should be sought from a variety of diversity. For it is Necessary to develop consensus to achieve consensus.
Deliberation to reach consensus
In order to forms a unity in diversity applied approach, "deliberation to reach consensus." It was not his own opinions Which Should be a collective agreement, but the common denominator, namely the core similarity was Chosen as the collective agreement. Can this only be achieved with the process of deliberation to reach consensus. In this way all the ideas That Arise accommodated in the deal. No one wins no one loses. This is commonly Referred to as a win / win solution. Way of voting as far as possible be avoided, Because it will from only give an opportunity for a strong and large, to impose the will, resulting in a situation That is called "The Domination of the majority"; "That does not a situation expected with the continuation of democracy.
Developed a sense of compassion and Sacrifice
In applying the unity in diversity in the life of nation and state need based on compassion. Mutual suspicions suspicious Should be Discarded away. Trust must be developed mutual trust, Jealousy, envy must be removed from the dictionary Unity in Diversity. Our existence on earth is to Provide Services to other parties, based on selfless individuals and groups, accompanied by a Sacrifice. Without Sacrifice, at least to reduce the interest and personal self-interest, unity impossible.
Pluralistic nature of the nation must be viewed as a gift from God to be utilized appropriately. With based on Pancasila, the power of diversity contained within it will from the make capital for growth and advancement of the nation. What is contained in the grains on top of a pluralistic nation as well as management scheme based on Pancasila. The concept of religiosity, humanity, citizenship, and social The principle is derived in Belief in God Almighty, just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, led by the populist wisdom in consultation / representation and social justice for all Indonesian people must underlie the pattern of life management is pluralistic.
Every citizen, ESPECIALLY the organizers of the state and the government obliged to thoroughly understand the concepts and principles embodied in the Pancasila to Be Able to apply in the life of nation and state, ESPECIALLY in anticipating the plurality of the nation. Various laws and Regulations have set a stipulation, that significantly binds Every citizen.